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15-Nov-2019 00:03

humanists were engaged in a revival of Classical learning and culture, and the notion of a thousand-year period of darkness and ignorance separating them from the ancient Greek and Roman world served to highlight the humanists’ own work and ideals.It would seem unnecessary to observe that the men and women who lived during the thousand years or so preceding the Renaissance were not conscious of living in the Middle Ages.Two great kingdoms, Germany and Italy, began to lose their political unity almost as soon as they had acquired it; they had to wait until the 19th century before they found it again.The only force capable of providing a basis for social unity was the Roman Catholic Church.The Gothic style developed in art and architecture.

The changes in forms of social organization they introduced rendered centralized government and cultural unity impossible.

In theory, these two groups complemented each other, attending to people’s spiritual and temporal needs, respectively.

Supreme authority was wielded by the pope in the first of these areas and by the emperor in the second.

The generalized meaning of "Germanic, Teutonic" appears in the 1640s.

Reference to the medieval period in Western Europe, and specifically the architecture of that period, also appears in the 1640s, as does reference to "Gothic characters" or "Gothic letters" in typography.

Throughout European history, however, there has never been a complete breach with medieval institutions or modes of thought.